Endometritis In Mares
Endometritis, or inflammation of the uterus, is reported to be the third most common medical condition in horses. In the past, endometritis was considered to be to be caused mostly by introduction of bacteria or fungi into the uterus during breeding. Although this is certainly a cause of infection, it is reported that inflammation by the sperm can cause enough irritation to prevent pregnancy. Semem from natural service and fresh cooled semen contains seminal plasma that normally suppresses inflammation to sperm in the uterus after breeding. However, seminal plasma is removed from frozen semen and this may be one reason the reproductive rates on breeding mares with frozen semen are less. Regardless, sperm induced inflammation has been shown to be a major cause in infertility in mares.
Also, some mares are more susceptible to infection while others are resistant. Those that are susceptible to infection usually have a delay in clearance of organisms due to a decrease in uterine muscle function or may have poor conformation of the anal and vulvar area allowing the entrance of bacteria.
This inflammation can be documented with a uterine cytology by taking a swab and looking at cells of the uterine lining. Also, excessive uterine fluid has been shown to correlate with uterine inflammation after breeding. This fluid must be removed for a pregnancy to occur. Flushing the uterus with sterile fluids and administering oxytocin and prostaglandins can aid in fluid removal in mares that are difficult to get pregnant.
A uterine cytology along with a culture is a critical to determine if infection or inflammation is present. A uterine biopsy is also is also important in not only determining inflammation but also can give you a prognosis on your mare becoming pregnant and carrying a foal to term. If you have a mare that has difficulty becoming pregnant or carrying a foal to term, call us to schedule breeding soundness exam.